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Django’s Gypsy Jazz Secrets

CtczIMwVUAApmw9 Gypsy-jazz scholar Michael Horowitz shares a primer on the essential elements of Django Reinhardt’s groundbreaking music.

The Secrets of Authentic Gypsy Jazz Rhythm

By Denis Chang

Have you ever wanted to learn how to play authentic Gypsy Jazz rhythm?

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Do you ever watch some of your favourite Gypsy Jazz rhythm players and wonder how they do it?

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In this step-by-step guide, we’ll show you all the secrets of your favourite players such as…


Just kidding, folks! This is not a sleazy article to get you to buy products. Although, many of the topics I discuss are explained in explicit detail in my DC Music School Gypsy Jazz Rhythm lessons (featuring yours truly), this article will mainly cover the historical role of the rhythm section in the music of Django Reinhardt, Gypsy Jazz, and jazz/swing music in general. I will include many recorded examples to demonstrate my points.

I have been particularly interested in accompaniment and interpretation since I discovered the music of Django Reinhardt. The guitar accompaniment itself, that we call La Pompe has been a great source of confusion and mystery for many players. Many people are explaining it differently, and many claim that theirs is authentic. Who’s right? Who’s wrong? Denis Chang is right, of course! Just kidding! Well, if you are familiar with any of my articles, then you know that we’re in for a roller coaster ride! When it comes to rhythm guitar in any style, there is so much that can be sound, but I will stick strictly to basic tone and basic execution/interpretation.

The answers to many of your questions require a lot of in-depth analysis. For starters, the word “authentic” itself is ambiguous and subjective; anything can be authentic, if enough people believe it to be. Repeat anything a thousand times, get other people to join in on the bandwagon, and it becomes the truth. For this reason, I will be talking about things from an objective and historical point of view. Of course, I will also share my opinions but they will be just that, and nothing more.

Over the past 15 years, I’ve had the opportunity to befriend and perform with some of the best players in the style. I won’t name drop, and I will even admit that sometimes these opportunities happened thanks to connections/circumstance, and not because I’m the king of rhythm guitar! Nonetheless, I am very thankful for these varied opportunities because they have given me tremendous knowledge and experience! I’ve also played with not so good players, and this too has helped me really understand the topic at a very deep level. I still have much to work on (as does everyone), but I would dare say that I am very knowledgeable about it.

La Pompe is far more than just playing quarter notes; many people underestimate the difficulty and artistry involved in playing rhythm guitar. Even the actual act of playing quarter notes involves interpretation; does one play on the beat, behind the beat, ahead of the beat? Should beats 1 and 3 be ahead of the beat, and 2 and 4 on the beat? Or vice-versa? The combinations are vast! We will discuss all of this in detail.247802_2018821344496_2546532_n

Furthermore, in contemporary Gypsy Jazz (check out my article on the history of Gypsy Jazz http://www.djangobooks.com/blog/author/denis-chang/), there are many styles beyond swing rhythm, but for simplicity’s sake, we will only be focusing on the standard 4/4 swing rhythm. Although many people focus on the rhythm guitar aspect of accompaniment, any other accompaniment instrument, whether bass and/or drums, is equally important and intrinsically tied to the rhythm guitar. I will certainly talk about it as well.

Let us first start with the guitar, and some history! Did Django Reinhardt invent La Pompe? No, he did not. The term itself is old French musician jargon referring to the alternation between bass and treble in piano and accordion accompaniment back in the day. La Pompe is literally “the pump”. In Gypsy Jazz circles, it refers to the swing guitar rhythm. La Pompe simulates the sound of a self-contained rhythm section: essentially, drums, harmony, and potentially bass. This is the key concept; the guitar is used to simulate other instruments. As we all know, instruments can sound many different ways; as such, it stands to reason that the sound of the guitar can also change depending on what we sound we are trying to simulate. Let’s make it clear right away: there is no one right way to play La Pompe! There are certainly bad ways, but even then, we end up in subjective territory.

La Pompe, in its most generic sense of the word, has existed before jazz music. On the guitar, Oscar Aleman was playing La Pompe in his native Argentina. In the USA, Lonnie Johnson was using it to play the blues. In France, Django Reinhardt was playing the popular dance music of the day. Furthermore, before the guitar became widespread, many musicians were playing La Pompe on 4 or 6 string banjos.

Django was also not the first to make it sound distinctly growly on beats 1 and 3 as is typical in Gypsy Jazz nowadays. It appears that it was always a sound that good rhythm guitarists naturally went after, back in the day, sometimes playing voicings that included the 5th of a chord on the low E string when the tonic was on A string (Charlie Parker 1943 Charlie Christian). Historically, I do not know if there was a specific reason for this, but I would assume that it just made things heavier, and helped strengthen the feel of the rhythm section.

Conventional wisdom leads us to believe that chord voicings were sparse in this style of guitar playing, often citing a specific period of Freddie Green’s career. However, in his early days, and in specific ensembles (notably with Eddie Durham in the 30s), Freddie, himself, played a rhythm style very similar to one of Django Reinhardt’s rhythm styles. Though, it is very difficult to ascertain the exact voicings, they were not the sparse one, or two note voicings that he became known for later in his career.

Rhythm guitarists in those days favoured dense voicings, sometimes with full bass notes on the lower strings. The voicings themselves were not very complex, generally triads for major and minor chords, and simple dominant 7th chords. Of course, there was no hard rulebook to which guitarists adhered. Therefore, one might occasionally hear special colours, such as augmented 5ths or dominant 9ths, but generally the chords remained simple.

Django Reinhardt, because of his limitations, had to figure out ways to play similar sounding chords and, therefore, came up with a few special voicings that made use of extensions. I have heard people claim that jazz music is based on 7th chords, and that Django innovated jazz by focusing on 6th chords; that is flat out wrong. The focus on the 7th sound came a little bit later in jazz history, and is mainly associated with the bebop movement. In earlier jazz, the 6th was the color of choice for major and minor chords, and Django simply adopted it into his rhythm playing. However, it is interesting to note that when he could, Django still tried to play triads. For instance, a C triad barre chord on the 3rd and 5th frets of the guitar; this can be clearly seen in existing footages of him. This is very interesting because, even with his long fingers, it requires a little bit of effort, when he could just as easily have played the famous Gypsy Jazz C6/9 voicing in the same position. Whether there is any musical intent behind this, we will never know, but it is certainly interesting to point out. What is important to note, was that his rhythm guitar players played the typical triadic voicings of the day. Django, therefore, did not insist that his rhythm players copy him, as contemporary Gypsy Jazz players often do!

From my conversations with Elios Ferret (son of Matelot Ferre who, along with his brothers, accompanied Django), I was able to confirm that Django was very musically aware; he insisted that the rhythm section be aware of dynamics. This is extremely important, because, it goes without saying that the rhythm section should be there to support the soloist. I believe that dynamically, the rhythm section should always strive to match the dynamics of the soloist. If a soloist is playing soft melodic lines, the rhythm section should play softly behind him/her. If, on the other hand, he/she were playing aggressive/virtuosic lines, the rhythm section should match the intensity.

While on this train of though, I’ve had conversations with musicians that said that guitarists have to be amplified if there was a drummer in the ensemble. I disagree; it is up to the drummer to learn how to be quiet to fit the dynamic intensity of the group. This is orchestration 101; good composers and arrangers write their music with full understanding of what each and every instrument can and should be doing at any given moment. There is no reason why this kind of reasoning shouldn’t exist in improvised music of any style. Listen to the fantastic recording of Begin the Beguine by Fapy Lafertin on his album Fleur De Lavende. Notice the light and sparse drumming supporting the soloist; it swings and it fits perfectly!

Nowadays with technology, it’s very easy to amplify the guitar, and it’s a big topic best left for another article, but in my opinion, one should not be a slave to amplification as it can greatly negatively affect one’s idea of technique and music. The tone of acoustic instruments change significantly in the way we attack the strings, and over amplification can force us to attack in a restrained way that does not allow us to explore the full dynamic range of the acoustic guitar. I believe that it is up to the entire ensemble to adjust their dynamics according to the lead instrument’s volume. Unless one were to approach this from the perspective of a rock band (and some do, which is fine, if that is their intent), amplification should be used sparsely and with great attention to musicality.

At any rate, throughout his career, Django and his rhythm players played La Pompe in many different ways. There is no distinct defining rhythm style associated with him. Again, with the lack of interviews and anecdotes, we will never know how much of it was intentional, but I would like to think that a vast majority of it certainly was!

Listen to the rhythm guitar (Joseph Reinhardt) in the August 1934 recording of Tiger Rag: very straight, equal duration chords with light accent on 2 and 4.

Now listen to Rose Room, recorded in 1937: still Joseph Reinhardt, but with the addition of another rhythm guitarist (Gusti Mahla). Notice, that the sound of the rhythm guitar during Django’s solo is a little bit heavier and slightly more staccato than the 1934 Tiger Rag recording. Because of the audio quality, it is hard to distinguish whether they were adding the upstroke grace note on beats 1 and 3, but Django certainly was when he was playing rhythm.


However, this upstroke is very audible in the 1937 recording of Minor Swing. I like to refer to this style of rhythm playing as the Hot Club sound. Even then, one should not quickly assume that this particular recording is the definitive way to do it.

If we listen to the 1939 recording of I’ll See You In My Dreams, we hear the same rhythm style but with a lighter attack, and a shorter duration for the chords. We begin to see with just these few examples how flexible rhythm guitar can be in swing/jazz music!

Moving forward in time, in 1943, let us listen to the recording of Douce Ambiance; a drum now replaces the second rhythm guitarist. Notice the sparse accompaniment that gives plenty of breathing space for the lead instruments! The rhythm guitar is light, and straight, matching the sound of the drums! This is very reminiscent of Charlie Christian’s own rhythm playing (listen to his recording of Rose Room with Benny Goodman).

In 1949, Django recorded a Minor Blues that I particularly like because of his accompaniment. It is very dry, raw and direct; it almost sounds like a march. I made a note for note cover a few years ago that you can watch here:

Assuming that my transcription is accurate, notice the use of triads on the I chord. On the IV chord (Cm), he uses a Cm6 voicing that sounds thinner than the Gm triad that he plays. Again, I would not dare say that I know exactly what he was thinking, but I do have certain theories about this. I believe that Django purposely used a richer and thicker sounding voicing on the I chord because it was more functionally important than the IV chord. Otherwise, if he had wanted to be efficient (and considering his handicap), he could have used the same voicings for both chords, which he clearly didn’t. He only starts playing Gm6/9 when doing effects such as the tremolo section on the penultimate chorus. With his handicap, he could have easily played Gm6/9 throughout, but instead, he always focused on the triadic sound! Of course, it is just a theory that I have, but I would not say that it is far-fetched; for someone who was illiterate and had practically no concept of music theory, Django was a very astute observer.

This leads me to the topic of voicings. I would like to think that Django was very aware of his choice of voicings, even despite his limitations! He played a specific voicing because that was the one he had in his musical vision. This is in stark contrast with contemporary players playing a voicing because it happens to be the one that they know. This idea of going to our “go to” voicings is not limited to Gypsy Jazz, but all styles of music. We should strive to play a voicing because it is the one we intend to play; we must always be able to justify it even if we may not agree with the choice, hence the subjective aspect of music. When I teach or give critiques, I try not to tell people how I think they should play, but I instead ask them if that is how they want to sound. Most of the time, people are unable to answer this question. Food for thought!

This is, of course, incredibly subjective and personal, and it is obviously something you will have to spend time thinking about in your own time. I will, however, explain my choice of voicings and rhythm styles.

I choose my voicings based on the repertoire, the style, the tempo, and especially with whom I am playing (both the soloist and the rest of the rhythm section). I am always listening for clues to find the best way to complement the band. There are countless variations for this, but I will give you a few different scenarios.

The same song can be played in so many different ways. If I played Minor Swing with a player with strong bebop inflections, I would gravitate towards Minor 7th chords. I might even add a Bm7b5 before going to E7, which I may dress up with a b9 or #9.

Notice the sound that I am using; fairly long duration of the chords on all beats, light attack with a slight accent on 2 and 4. Of course, keep in mind that this is a general example; in reality, I constantly react according to what the soloist is doing, and the rhythm style may change within the same performance according to what I hear.

If on the other hand, I was playing with a old style swing player, then I would opt to use the simple triadic voicings of the 1930s.


If I played with certain Gypsies in the east of France, I would use some of the heavy and rich voicings that Django used, and then some; I might even play F6/9 instead of Dm6 as is typical in that region! Played in that region tend to have a much heavier attack, which is the perfect opportunity to let loose!


Notice the difference in dynamics between this style and the previous recording. The same drive and intensity is there, but a different dynamic level. Again, I remind you, that things may change, and I may use a completely different way of accompaniment based on who I play with and which song we were playing. The Gypsies, themselves have many ways of accompanying, and it can just as easily sound a different way. As always, there is no specific principle that they follow.

Keep in mind that the sound of the rhythm can also change based on the tempo of the song; the possibilities are endless! Here are two examples of two uptempo songs just to give you an idea.

As you see, if we go beyond a narrow-minded contemporary vision Gypsy Jazz, there is no one defining style of rhythm playing. That said, when I do teach contemporary Gypsy Jazz, I generally teach a form of the basic Hot Club rhythm that we talked about earlier; with and without the upstroke, which is yet another option to all the rhythm styles (and then some) that we have looked at so far. Gypsies (the Manouche Gypsies anyway) seem to have preserved a lot of the sound of the old style, but they have also brought in their own touch, which is generally a much heavier and aggressive sound. Even then, as I mentioned earlier on, there is no one single defining style; the sound varies from region to region, or even player to player. People talk of a Parisian school, Alsatian school, Dutch school, German school, Bieber school but quite frankly, I’m not sure that I 100% agree with this. There may have been a time when that could have been very true, but in my travels, each player had their distinct way of accompanying; certain players may be influenced by local players, but accompaniment styles can still differ greatly. Listen to Hono Winterstein’s accompaniment versus Dorado Schmitt’s accompaniment. For your information, they are both from Forbach in the Lorraine region of France; Hono is Dorado’s brother-in-law.

If we are to assume that the real way of playing Gypsy Jazz rhythm is the contemporary Gypsy way (and I don’t, although I am heavily influenced by them), then indeed many people are teaching it wrong.

This leads me to my next point, there are a number of players teaching the Hot Club rhythm in an interesting way, and it has become quite popular among non-Gypsy musicians (all around the world, and even in Paris). This style of rhythm playing comes from trying to emulate the sounds that one hears on Gypsy recordings. Unfortunately, rhythm guitars aren’t always mixed prominently in a recording; with all the mixing and mastering, sometimes the sound of a rhythm guitar ends up giving the illusion of sounding a different way. This is what many players have copied. Interestingly enough, when these players, then record this way, it ends up sounding different from the recordings they originally tried to emulate. Again, I am not criticizing these musicians; it is perfectly their right to play it however they want. For instance, people who don’t speak French, generally can’t tell the difference between Swiss, Belgian, Quebec, Parisian (etc.) accents; I have been so deeply involved with Gypsy Jazz at an intimate level, that I am able to hear these little details, the same way I can distinguish between the various French accents (since I do speak French). Interestingly enough, I know the players that they try to emulate, and they themselves confirm that they definitely do not play it that way.

One such way is a heavy emphasis on beats 1 and 3 and a nearly or quasi-muted staccato 2 and 4. While it’s definitely not my “go to” standard swing rhythm, I wouldn’t be quick as to completely dismiss it despite its fascinating origins. I think certain rhythms can be used for very specific situations.


In the instance of a folkloric Gypsy song, it can be nice to have a longer 1 and 3 and a short 2 and 4. You can hear this on the lesson/album that I produced for Tcha Limberger, Romani Gilia Vol.2, on the song “Kai Djas Kan Miri Pirni”.


On certain slow to medium swings, it can also be interesting to have a quasi muted 2 and 4; it reminds me of a nice Sinatra feel.

Generally speaking though, I think it’s a good idea to match the duration of the chords on the left hand. If the 1 and 3 were to be played short, the 2 and 4 should be played short as well. If on the other hand, exceptions aside, the 1 and 3 were played longer, the 2 and 4 should be held longer as well. The duration of the chords don’t necessarily have to be exact, but there shouldn’t be such a huge contrast like in the last few examples. Again, this is but my opinion, based on the sounds that I like (which include both Gypsies and pre-war jazz guitarists)

In my opinion, the best way to learn Gypsy Jazz rhythm sound production, is to learn to play chords with longer durations, and then to learn to play them with shorter durations. Once these two are assimilated (and it is no easy feat), we will be able to technically achieve any sound we want. Most people are only familiar with a short duration for beats 2 and 4, and it is extremely difficult them to hold on to the chord without sacrificing tone on the other beats and the right hand. Indeed, while working on the left hand duration, the right hand must remain the same!

With regards to using the upstroke, there are many ways to approach it as well. Some upstrokes are lighter, others are more pronounced. It is merely a question of preference. In the instance of medium to up-tempo swing, the upstroke should generally be extremely close to the downstroke, to the point where they form one tight unit. The up and downstrokes should generally not be separate rhythmic units.

One can choose to hit all the strings on the upstrokes and downstrokes in the style of Fapy Lafertin, or just the bass strings, in the style of Hono Winterstein. The difference between the two is quite subtle (and we’re not even talking about left hand duration).

Disclaimer: I wouldn’t dare say that that is exactly how Fapy and Hono play their rhythms. In fact, they have more than just one style, but I would say that it is fairly close to what they do.

On beats 2 and 4, I like to hit all strings, but a few players like to alternate between bass (roughly E to G) and treble strings (roughly D to E) on 1 and 3. Once again the difference is subtle.

All strings on 2 and 4 :

Treble strings 2 and 4 Example:

Finally, coming back to the issue of upstrokes, one can apply pressure on the strings with the left hand before executing the upstroke, or one can totally (or almost) mute the strings, the difference is very subtle. See if you can hear the difference in the following examples

As you can see, the combinations are near endless!

On the other hand, when playing ballads, chord durations and the use of upstrokes are different than for swing rhythms; it’s an entirely different approach. Once again, there are no rules, and it depends on the song and the mood that one wishes to convey.

For lyrical passages, one can have much longer chord durations to the point where the harmony rings out in the sonic spectrum. I will give you three examples of ballad rhythms with long duration:

In the first example, notice the pronounced and slow upstroke before beats 1 and 3. Of course, the upstrokes are optional, it can be done with only downstrokes throughout./

In the last example, notice that my left hand never releases the pressure except to switch chords!

For passages that are more dramatic and require more intensity, I may make the chord durations much shorter, and if I choose to use an upstroke, it is much quicker:

I think I have given you enough examples for you to understand, that there is no one right way to do things. In fact, there are many other sounds that can be achieved, but the point of this article is to only to help clear some of the confusion.

How then do I decide which rhythm to use? As I said, it depends on many factors. If I were just jamming casually, it shouldn’t matter too much, though it would be nice to listen to each other and complement each other. If, on the other hand, I was working in a professional setting, I usually just ask the player what he/she prefers. Some are very easy going (phew!), others have a very clear vision of what they want, and I try my best to fulfill his/her vision.

My good friend Roberto Rosenman, from Toronto, coined the term Rhythm Bitch; it’s really just light humour, but the fact is, a rhythm player should truly be at the service of the soloist.

Of course, there are other styles, where the line between rhythm and solo becomes quite blurry, and the rhythm section actively influences the soloist. This is another style of playing, which is certainly valid. There’s not much to say about that style of playing, because in that world, anything goes! In my opinion, that style of playing works best in smaller settings such as duets, otherwise, things can easily get chaotic. Whenever I play this way, I listen very carefully to what the soloist is doing, and at times, I may even completely reharmonize a song if I hear that the soloist is about to hit a specific note, and I know that my new harmony will fit. It can be quite exciting!

Speaking of harmony, I’ve talked about the importance of choosing the right voicings, but one should equally be aware about which sets of chords to play. Many songs, if not all, can be played in a number of different ways. Some songs within a particular style have a standard set of changes that most players know, but others, that are less common, can be played in many different ways. In a professional setting, it’s a good idea of the ensemble to be an agreement with which sets of changes to use. It’s always amusing to witness a jam session with each player playing completely different sets of chords (and in some cases, chords that are conflicting) and seeing everyone being completely oblivious to it. I really wonder, are they listening?! I encourage you to listen to different versions of songs and to pay attention to what chords are being played, it can be a very educational experience, and can give you new ideas.


With regards to timing, believe it or not, it can be highly interpretive as well. The tempo can and certainly will move, though in my opinion it should be extremely subtle; anything more should be intentional. No one is ever 100% metronomic, we all move in one way or another. I have to admit that everything in my previous examples was recorded to a click track, and since I am using midi bass, I lined up my rhythm guitar to be perfectly in sync with it. This is not reality, however.

This is very subjective, but most people who are playing swing music generally want the beat to drive a little bit. It should give the feeling of pushing without really speeding up too much; once again, it is very subtle. In the more contemporary Gypsy Jazz style, people to tend to exaggerate this a little bit; I’m not a huge fan of it, but I suppose that’s what the style is. I, myself, am sometimes guilty of it if I don’t pay attention.

One of the best examples of subtle pushing, is Django’s first recording of Minor Swing in 1937. The band gets excited over the course of the song, and by the end of the tune, the tempo has sped up a little bit, though it is not so obvious.

With this feeling of subtly pushing the beat (without speeding up too much), soloists have more freedom in their phrasing, and can easily play on the beat, and with a bit of skill can play behind the beat which creates a very fluid and relaxed feel. Generally, guitarists with a lot of technical facility have no problem playing ahead of the beat, and in fact we tend to naturally gravitate towards it. It can certainly be an effect, and works great for certain passages, but in my opinion, we should try to use it sparsely.

On the other hand, if the rhythm player is dragging, it can make many soloists nervous, and those who tend to play slightly ahead of the beat will sound much more out of time than they should. This can especially be a drag (pun intended) on uptempo virtuosic songs, where the soloist is really giving all he/she’s got.

Any fluctuation in tempo should not be too noticeable (unless intended). Usually the ones who notice this feeling are the people soloing (or dancing!).

I would encourage you to experiment with a few different concepts; trying to push on 1 and 3, but keeping it steady on 2 and 4, and vice versa. Record yourself, and try soloing over the tracks to feel the effect. Again, this is something that is extremely subtle and kind of pushing should be microscopic. On slower songs, one might even want to have a subtle laid back feeling on the 1 and 3 and keep the 2 and 4 as steady as possible, especially for lyrical passages. On dramatic passages, where the rhythm is more staccato, I would suggest striving to keep all beats steady, but if it had to move, better to slightly push than drag. Again, I remind you that this is highly subjective and you should simply just try to experiment with what feels best for the people you play with. I have played with people who preferred that the rhythm section drag a little bit; I have also played with people who insisted that the rhythm section REALLY push the beat. There are all sorts of opinions out there, and if they are the leaders of the band, then they are the ones who are right.

I remember doing a tour with two rhythm guitar players, where one was fairly consistent with the beats, but the other one had a tendency to push the 2 and 4 a little bit more than what felt comfortable for the soloists; with two rhythm guitar players, with conflicting time feel, it created a bit of a echo effect. In instances where there are two rhythm players, I urge you to listen very carefully to the timing and to find a common meeting point. These are very subtle and require tremendous concentration.

No one is perfect, I’ve had my share of off moments on certain songs, where I dragged or pushed more than I should have, and I’m happy to say that I’ve seen all the best players do the same. In the end, it requires constant concentration, which is why rhythm guitar is not as easy as it appears to be!

But enough about guitar! As I have mentioned earlier on, the bass is an equally important of the equation. None of the sound issues we talked about matter, if the bass is doing the same thing all the time, especially if it’s a different thing! In fact, it just kills the whole feel, in my opinion. There was a time earlier in my career when I thought every bass player was the same; just get anyone who can walk in time, and that’s it. How naïve I was!

With regards to upright bass sound production, many bass players seem to play the same way, walking bass. When it comes to playing swing music, many are at a loss! Few can play with a bow in tune and with a decent tone. In fact, I believe that whatever instrument we play, we should learn to take advantage of all the sounds it can offer. The contemporary pizzicato rest stroke technique for bass involves playing fairly long tones for walking bass, and the attack is sometimes somewhat soft. It is the standard technique, and make no mistake about it, it’s fantastic, but it is not the only way to play the instrument. Yet, for many bass players, it is the only way that they know.

The slap technique of the old days is great and I don’t see any reason not to learn how to do it , even at the most basic level. It doesn’t have to be the virtuosic slap style that rockabilly bass players are known for. There is a percussive intensity in the old style of plucking the bass that works great for old style swing / dance music. Listen to this clip of Louis Armstrong from 1933:

or this contemporary Gypsy Jazz recording:

There is also no reason why the bass shouldn’t be played with a bow in jazz / swing music. It can create wonderful textures and can still swing, if done properly:

In the context of swing music or Gypsy Jazz, there is no one right away to play bass, again it depends on the same factors as rhythm guitar.

If we go back to the standard walking bass, there are many ways to do it as well. In this recording, the bass notes are held long but the bass player applies a certain level of intensity in the attack for each note, often using always the same finger to pluck each note:

Now listen to the same bass player, and same lead player playing a heavier song:

Notice that the bass player is still walking but now the duration of the quarter notes are much shorter, and the intensity of the right hand is a bit stronger resulting in a pumping feel!

I invite you to listen back to all the recordings that I’ve made for this article and listen to how the bass complements each of the rhythm guitar styles. Again, nothing is set in stone, it’s not about copying but about complementing, and there are different ways to do this; in the end, it’s up to you and your bassist to experiment.

As to when one should be playing in two feel or walking bass, once again, that entirely depends on so many factors. Everyone will have their own take on this. I feel certain songs certainly benefit from playing mainly in two feel, such as older swing songs purposely played in the old style. Occasionally, on certain passages, it can be nice to have a few walk ups in walking feel, as well; it’s really up the bass player’s discretion. I have tried to add some of that in recorded examples of two feel.

On certain songs, it can be nice to have parts of the songs in two feel and others in walking bass. Generally, the first and last choruses (melodies) can be played in two, and the solos can be walked. It can be a particularly exciting effect when there is a climactic build up leading to the final chorus ending with a heavy accent on the first beat of the last chorus, then switching to a soft two feel, and finally ending with a big bang. This is what I aimed for in this recording of J’attendrai with Yorgui Loeffler, at 3:20:

The important thing is to always listen to what’s going on, and to figure out what is the best way to complement the situation. There are no rules, but one should strive to make every action intentional in order to serve the music.

In order to have the freedom to concentrate on what’s going on, one must be very comfortable with the technical and mental aspect of rhythm playing. The technical aspect speaks for itself. The mental aspect is the mastery of the repertoire. Anyone who knows me, knows that I hate charts. I have never used charts to accompany anyone professionally. I’ve always committed every song to memory, and I have trained myself to be able to memorize the songs quickly. I don’t believe myself to be more talented than the average musician, but I understood early on that I had to train my memory and ears. I’ve had to memorize entire sets with arrangements the day of the concert, and the only reason I am able to do this, is because I stopped using charts long ago. If you are really serious about music, I urge you to do the same.

I also highly advise people interested in rhythm playing, to also learn as many lead playing concepts as possible, in order to train the ears to hear how certain notes and melodies fit with certain chords or certain voicings. If I hear that someone is about to go for an altered line, I can quickly adjust my chords to support his/her line.

That, my friends, is the secret to Gypsy Jazz rhythm. It is an organic and interactive process that requires tremendous concentration. I know that not everyone does these things in this style of music. Even some of the well-known ensembles don’t always follow these principles, but that is just my vision of music in general, not just Gypsy Jazz. Nonetheless, I still find joy in listening to artists whose vision are different from mine. My words are merely food for though. Hopefully they also dispel any kind of mystery and misconception that one has about this style. There is no one right way, and the leader of each ensemble decides what is the right sound; if a Gypsy Jazz bandleader thinks that a bluegrass rhythm with open chords is “authentic” Gypsy Jazz, then that is his/her right. The important thing is that everything is intentional and that it swings. Yes, the concept of swing is very subjective. I’ve heard music that I thought had zero groove, but that people enjoyed greatly. Some bandleaders are less strict about how rhythm should sound, others are very specific about what they want. Fair enough! It’s a great learning experience to work with these people, but I would also urge you to give it some thought so that you can come up what works best for your vision of music.

Gypsy or not, good accompaniment is very difficult and requires tremendous skill. Gypsies only have the advantage of learning sound through osmosis, but that is only one aspect of rhythm playing. I’d rather work with someone whose sound I didn’t necessarily like, but whose timing was solid, and who was able to learn songs quickly.

I think any style of music can be greatly improved if the whole ensemble strived, not only to work together, but to also serve the music, first and foremost.

If you enjoyed this article, and would like to know more about this topic, please check out the various Gypsy Jazz lessons on my website www.dc-musicschool.com, featuring yours truly, and many world renowned artists.

All examples recorded on my beautiful Martin Tremblay guitar


All bass examples come from the Trilian sample library by Spectrasonics.


Breakdown & Analysis of Stochelo Rosenberg’s solo on “Bossa Dorado”

By Barry Wahrhaftig

Bossa Dorado is a ‘must know,’ song for Gypsy Jazz players of all levels. It’s a staple of Jam Sessions and a favorite of players everywhere, and it goes over well at concerts and gigs. Just as we all need to know some of Django’s solos on the HCOF sides, as they are basically now parts of the song. Any player worth their salt should be familiar with Stochelo’s iconic solo on ‘Bossa Dorado.’ The piece was penned by Dorado Schmitt, who also wrote classics like ‘Tchavolo Swing,’ and the beautiful ‘Kali Sara.’[1]

The rhythm of the piece is actually a Rhumba, not a Bossa Nova, and the groove is a staple of Gypsy Jazz at this time. Needless to say, you should make sure that you have mastered the rhythm guitar part before you learn the solo [!] The Rhumba is Afro-Cuban in origin. It’s very similar to the grooves played by the ‘Gypsy Kings.’ [There’s a bit of Flamenco flavor in the groove and melody. Gypsy Jazz is truly ‘World Music’].   I would suggest taking some time to ingrain the rhythm guitar part, as it’s the heart and soul of the piece. Pick up Denis Chang’s Art of Accompaniment DVD[2], or get with a teacher if possible, [or both]. In my travels, I sometimes hear players struggling with the rhythm. The rhythm should have a soulful push to it. My friend Niglo Grünholz, [David Emerald], had to read the riot act to a bunch of jammers at Samoreau campground last June. He pointed out that the players were dragging the rhythm. They were slightly shocked, but he was right. You can’t play funk like a white-boy, and you shouldn’t play Gypsy Jazz like a Gadjo[!]   Oh, and while I’m at it, for God’s sake memorize the piece, melody and changes, and intro and outro. It’s OK to bring music to jam sessions when you have only been playing for a little while, but you should wean yourself off of music, [including ipads], ASAP. If you are soloing over a piece and reading the changes, it will sound like it. If you want to step up your game, toss the charts ASAP. Same goes for gigs, try to memorize all your pieces. This shows respect for the music and your audience and fellow players. [OK, I’ll step off my soap box now]!

The well-known intro starts the piece out. It’s based on a moving line that starts on the 5th of the D minor chord, which is ‘A’ natural. It moves up a half step to Bb, then to B natural, back down to Bb and A. The intro is basically a Montuno[3] , and it uses a harmonic device called CESH[4]. I sometimes tell the audience that we are playing the James Bond Theme, since it uses the same harmonic device [!][5]

On the live recording, it sounds like Stochelo is just playing the moving line, and Nous’che, the rhythm guitarist, is playing the written figure. I combined both parts in my transcription. You might want to just play the written intro and have the 2nd guitar play the rhythm part, even though nobody is playing rhythm on the intro on the recording. The recording isn’t ‘A’ 440. I had to bring it down -31 cents. The form is AABA. The melody is built around a common device and harmonic progression found in Gypsy Jazz and also in G.J’s Musette roots;   Dmi-E7-Emi7b5-A7. [We can look at the Emi7b5 as a Passing chord]. The melody implies two parts; the lower one, that starts on ‘A’ natural, and descends by ½ steps to G#-G natural. The upper voice starts on ‘F’ natural, and goes to ‘E’. It basically resolves to an ‘F’ Nat the 3rd of the key of D Minor. The piece uses a b9 on the E7, [F nat.] It builds tension by repeating the F nat. over the E7 and Emi7b5. The bridge has a temporary shift to Gmi, by way of Ami7b5-D7, [ii7-V7 of Gmi]. E7 acts as a secondary dominant, leading to A7 by way of Emi7b5, which sets up a return of the theme. When Stochelo plays the last ‘A’ section of the song, he uses double-stops, based on the 5th and 7th of the A7 chord. And also the 3rd and 5th of the chord. [Bar 25 of my transcription].    Note to theory-wonks;   Powertab is a great program, but it does some strange things. I ended up calling the Emi7b5 a Gmi/E or Gmi6/E. Same for Ami7b5, which I called Cmi/A or Cmi6/A. The reason for that is that Powertab changes notes to double flats in the notation part if you use certain chords. It also doesn’t really show all accidentals or slides, etc. in the notation. I suggest that you print out the transcription and pencil in accidentals and slides etc., if you read music. Also, I didn’t write in the picking, but Gypsy Picking rules apply. I suggest that you work the piece out carefully, taking time to write in left hand fingerings and pickings. It’s worth taking the time to ingrain the material carefully. The tactile aspect of playing is important, and it will serve you well in performance, so the time spent is worth it. I tried my best to show where I thought Stochelo played the passages, but if you find a way that works better for you, feel free to use it.

We can learn a lot my dissecting Stochelo’s solo. When he ends the melodic statement [which uses parts of a D blues scale] he goes right into outlining a Dmi 6th chord, [bars 27 & 28], then plays a bit of a Dmi scale with ‘backtracking ‘ embellishments, ending with a high ‘A’ natural, leaping down to a C#, bar 2 of the ‘A’ section. The C# is the Major 7th of the Dmi chord, and is a bit dissonant, [or interesting]! The ‘B’ naturals which he played just before in the pickup to the solo are typical of Gypsy Jazz, outlining a minor 6th chord. The raised 6th and 7th is very common to all types of Jazz. It’s worth mentioning that holding a C# gives you a much different effect that playing it as a passing note. When you break this solo down, keep in mind that music is built of the principle of tension and release. Look for the parts that build tension, and the parts that release tension. Great soloist like Stochelo is an expert at exploiting that principle. Check out his use of repeated double stops in bars 31-33 of the transcript.

Top players like Stochelo are masters of phrasing, so it’s a good idea to look at where he begins and ends ideas. Check out the double-time passage in bars 34-36. He is using D harmonic Minor in bar 34. [See Ex. 8 for D Harmonic minor scale]. The Harmonic Minor scale has a flat 3rd, 6th and raised 7th. The raised 7th is the major 3rd of the Dominant chord of the key, [A7]. In Jazz, especially Gypsy Jazz, the most common scale used on the Dominant chord is the Harmonic minor scale, starting and ending on the 5th degree of the scale, A-A. [See Ex. 6]. The scale is called Gypsy Dominant, and is also used in Klezmer music, where it’s called ‘Ahava Raba.’  It’s also used in Flamenco music. It’s used in songs like ‘Dark Eyes,’ for the Dominant chord, and it fits the ii7, [Emi7b5], too. The most common mode or scale that fits the ii7b5 chord is the Lochrian mode, which is an F major scale played E-E. The only difference between the 2 scales is the C# in the Gypsy Dom scale. [I’m hoping that your head isn’t spinning at this point]! Basically, you want to learn your theory and then forget it. If you ingrain the sounds and scales and chord shapes in your hands and eras, you will be able to use them on the spur of the moment. The names don’t really matter, but being to know where and when to use them without having to really think about it is the goal, so however you get there is cool. At any rate, the double-time bit in bars 34-36 is quite effective, helping to keep the energy of the solo going at the end of the 1st ‘A’ section of the song. He is basically ‘change running, playing the scale or chord shape that fits the change. Note the Eb passing tone at the end of bar 34, so that the line lands on the D natural on the 1st beat of bar 35. The notes in bar 35 suggest D Dorian, and there is an enclosure bit at the end of the bar; the F natural-C# which resolves to D natural in bar 36. The idea continues on with a similar Dmi 7- Dmi6th chord shape. Here Stochelo is playing on the Tonic Dmi chord thru the iimi7b5-A7 turnaround. It works in part because of the speed of the song and the double-time feel of the line.

He takes a little breath at the last beat of bar 36, [at the A7 cadence which is end of the1st eight bar phrase. He rests until the upbeat of the 1st beat of Bar 37. Note what effect is created by not starting on the 1st beat of the bar. He slows the action down with a Dmi9 Arp idea in bar 37, embellished with a trill on the root D to the 9th, and uses basically the same shape in bars 35 and 36, ending on the F-E in bar 39. He uses Gypsy Dom for the E7 chord, played in 16ths for double-time effect. He continues the line in bar 40, playing F Nat – G natural, [b9, and #9]. The line ends with enclosure on a lower E. [F nat.-Eb to E]. The next part of the phrase starts on the upbeat of the 3rd beat in bar 41, acting as a pick-up to the dominant 7th change in 42. [The Gmi6 or Emi7b5 change is really just a passing change to the A7. You’ll find that you can play less, or leave more space on that part of the progression. In general, it’s the Dominant chords that are most interesting. And, because they are Dom 7th chords, they are dissonant, and the stand out more. Remember, we are thinking about tension and release. The E7 creates some tension, the Emi7b5 is less dissonant, and it leads to the most important Dom, which is the A7. Stochelo plays his signature double-stops at the end of Bar 43. It creates tension by holding and repeating the E and G double-stops for beats 2, 3 and 4, and the downbeat of bar 44. It’s a delayed resolution of the A7 in bar 42. [Holding the 9th and 11th, or 2nd and 4th creates a suspension, often found in classical and rock music. It resolves on the upbeat of the 2nd beat. Also, it’s worth pointing out that it’s more effective to emphasize or bring out the aspects of more dissonant chords. Leaning on the dissonant chords and backing off on the resolutions are key to being a great improviser. Examine the overall harmony and melody, and observe where it is active and static. The greats do this at an almost unconscious level. Again, many of the Gypsy Greats may not use theory; they don’t need it, because they do it by instinct with soul. That’s the goal.

Stochelo takes a short break at the end of the ‘A’ section, starting his solo on the Bridge on the upbeat of four in bar 44. He does an interesting bit in bar 45, using the ‘A’ Locrian mode starting on an F Nat., [connecting the Dmi sound from bar 44], he uses trills and passing tones [E Nat, and B Nat to delay the line, creating some tension leading to the D7 in bar 46. He employs suspensions and double-stops again, playing a G Nat on 1st beat, so that the line that he started on the last beat of bar 44, really doesn’t rest until beat 2 of bar 46. It doesn’t rest much because of the double-stops in bar 46 and 47. The suspension effect happens again in bar 47, by playing the A & C double-stops, so that the D7 of bar 46 isn’t resolved until the upbeat of 4 in bar 47. He plays a very cool lower neighbor syncopated double-stop classic Jazz bit in bars 48 and 49, a la Kenny Burrell. Check out the Bad-ass Gypsy dom-Double time idea in bars 50 & 51, leading into a classic Django cliché based on A7 Gypsy Dom, bars 52 and 53. [He’s basically using Django’s favorite Diminished chord shape device, used in Dark Eyes, and using it to set up the now-classic Sinti style suspension bit in bars 54-57. [It’s hard to play the song or hear anyone play it, without unconsciously expecting to hear that bit]! In the transcript I used a repeat on bar 56, so we can say there’s a bar 56-b, after bar 56. He uses the A7 Gypsy Dominant scale in bar 57, over the Gmi6, [Emi7b5], using an Eb passing tone. Stochelo uses double-stops again to close out the 1st chorus. [Nice ‘bookending’ effect, since he used the device in the beginning of the solo.

The piece isn’t very long, partly because of how fast it’s played, and Stochelo only plays another half chorus solo before returning to the melody. I transcribed just the melody and 1st chorus. Stochelo playing of the melody and solo[s] are similar to what he does on ‘Seresta,’ the Trio’s earlier studio CD.[6] You can learn a great deal from examining and learning Stochelo’s playing here. His sound and feel are as important as his formidable technique. [His left hand vibrato is quite strong, sometimes bending the pitch of the sting]. I know that I’ve said this before, but we can learn a lot by emulating the tone and feel of players like Stochelo, not just focusing on his amazing speed.[7] The most important thing is the soul, beauty and fire of his playing. He plays from the heart, and that’s what matters. The devices that he uses work at any tempo. The theory is important, especially for us unlucky ‘Gadje,’ [non-Gypsy]. Perhaps we have to learn how to be natural, and to express ourselves musically like our mentors like Stochelo and Dorado. They don’t need the theory and terms, they can hear and play it all naturally, and that’s our goal. [Reminds me of the line from the Film ‘Treasure of the ‘Sierra Madre,’ “Badges, we don’t need no stinkin’ badges”! By the way, Michael Horowitz has told me that the Stochelo Rosenberg will be at DjangoFest NW this Sept, so get out to see him if you can, by hook or by crook!

I included some basic scales and material at the end of the piece. They are only meant to be a used for quick reference. Ex 2 is a common device that uses just the 1ST, 2nd, 3RD & 5TH degrees of the minor scale. Please feel free to contact me if you have questions and comments. My email is Barwarren@aol.com Also; I have some interviews and lesson material at my blog, including one with Stochelo. Check out www.GypsyJazzGuitarOnline.com, and say hi.

Barry Wahrhaftig performs with the Hot Club of Philadelphia. Their 2nd CD is due for Fall release. See www.HotClubPhilly.com for bookings and workshops.


[1] Both featured in the Tony Gatlif Film ‘Latcho Drom.’

[2] Available here: The Art of Accompaniment

[3] A Montuno is a repeating harmonic progression, used in Latin music. It has a rhythmic underpinning that is quite important. See ‘Clave,’ for more info. Pat Metheny uses the device a lot in his compositions. Check out ‘Phase Dance.’

[4] CESH is an acronym that stands for ‘Chromatic Elaboration of Static Harmony.’ Basically, just a fancy way of saying that notes in the chord change, while the chord stays the same. The intro to ‘For Wesley,’ by Jimmy Rosenberg, uses a descending minor device, which can also be called ‘CESH.’ Jimmy’s iconic soloing and writing were also hugely important influences on the modern Gypsy Jazz styles, especially his use of Latin Rhythms,

and chordal suspensions, used which are heard thru out Stochelo’s solo and melodic statement.

[5] BTW, I think that Dorado wrote the piece in the key of E minor.

[6] ‘Seresta’ Rosenberg Trio, 1989, Hot Club Records

[7] The amazing scat singer and Rhythm Guitarist Philippe ‘Doudou’ Cuillerier compared Stochelo’s amazingly accurate timing and technique to a Swiss watch. You can hear his accuracy even at ½ speed.


Analysis and Breakdown of Stochelo Rosenberg’s “Minor Swing” Solo from Live at the North Sea Festival

By Barry Wahrhaftig

Live at the North Sea Festival, is certainly on my “Desert Island Gypsy Jazz CD list.” The 1993 recording is significant in showing the virtuosity of the Earth Force known as Stochelo Rosenberg. He is usually assisted by his cousins; Nonnie on bass, and Nous’che on rhythm guitar. Their first CD Seresta released in 1989, introduced Stochelo and crew to the world. Live at the North Sea, further established and solidified Stochelo’s importance, and the influence of players from the “Dutch School”, exemplified by Stochelo and his cousin Jimmy Rosenberg. These proponents of the style brought much life into the Gypsy Jazz revival, and demonstrated how the genre was growing and evolving.

The Rosenbergs are part of the Sinti Gypsy community, based in the Netherlands. Some of the elements of the style are rapid-fire arpeggiated runs, and open-string/closed string syncopated ideas.[1]

Stochelo’s Live at the North Sea “Minor Swing”, solo is a tour de force, and there’s much that we can learn from it. Needless to say, the iconic piece is probably the most played song of the style, so you could say that it contains many of the elements of Gypsy Jazz. He uses some ideas from Django’s 1949 recording of Minor Swing.  Recorded in Rome with an Italian rhythm section, it features Django on an acoustic guitar. If we compare the ’49 version with his groundbreaking version recorded in 1937 with the Hot Club of France, we can see that Django was starting to experiment with Bebop ideas, and he was moving in a new direction.[2]

A word about my transcription; I tried to represent the rhythms as accurately as possible, basically as with any transcription, it is meant to act as a guide and a record of what the musician played. You should of course listen to the track to get the feel. Since it’s played in swing time, it’s a dotted 8th note-16th feel for the most part. I didn’t write out all of the funky subdivisions, [the chordal bit in the 5th chorus for example is simplified a bit]. There are times when Stochelo plays a dead string between notes, etc., and I didn’t notate them all.

About the chord progression; most of you know the progression, and good chord voicings for it. If you don’t, check out Michael Horowitz’s book Gypsy Rhythm which includes transcriptions of Django’s original chord progression as well as variations used by the Rosenbergs and other contemporary players. The progression for the solos, after the little minor triad is played is basically; 2 bars of Ami or Ami6, 2 bars of Bmi7b5, or Dmi6, [Dmi/B], 2 bars of E7, 2 bars of Ami, 2 bars of Dmi, 2 of Ami, 2 of E7, then 1 bar of Ami, followed by a bar of E7. The final bar of E7 acts as a turnaround, similar to a 12 bar blues form.  

It’s a 16 bar form, Tonic minor to a iimi7b5, then V7 to tonic. Iv minor to tonic, to V7 then tonic, followed by V7.  The 2nd chord can be thought of as either the ii chord of Ami, or a Dmi6th with B in bass. Dmi and Bmi7b5 have the same basic function. It might be easier for beginners to think of the 2nd chord as a Dmi with a ‘B’ note added].

It’s amazing to see what Django and Stochelo do with such a simple progression. One device that is pretty common is to play an A7 instead of Ami for bar 8. Sometimes you will hear a soloist use the notes in an A7 or A7b9 at the point in the form, even when the other chord player is playing an Ami. Basically, it works even when only the soloist outlines the notes, [A-C#-E-G-Bb]. The most important aspect is playing the C#, since it’s the 3rd of the chord.  Stochelo and company add some harmonic variations to this simple progression, and they are worth checking out and understanding.

We can hear that in bar 9 of Stochelo’s 2nd chorus, that they play a commonly used harmonic variation on the progression. It’s a cycle of 4ths; Dmi[7] to G7 to Cma7 to Fma7 to Bmi7b5 to E7. [A common cliché, it can be found in many songs, Autumn Leaves, for example. The Dmi or Dmi7 in bar 9 [which can be thought of as the ii chord in the Key of  ‘C’ major], sets up a cycle of 4ths, resting for a bar on C major, before shifting back to Ami, thru a  ii ½ diminished   – V7 –Tonic bit. Listen to how Stochelo plays off of those chords when they use that progression. It’s a nice variation that you can use in a performance. You’ll want to be sure that your band mates are hip to it, and make eye contact with them to avoid train wrecks[!] Eventually you’ll get to the point where everyone can feel when these things are going to happen, and that helps to make it fun and interesting.  

For the solo, Stochelo begins with a phrase based around ‘E’ natural, which is the V7 or Dominant chord and note of the key. The 1st few bars are based a bit on the beginning of Django’s solo from his 1949 recording. He outlines Ami and Ami6, then dmi6, and then E7b9, resting on the Ami in bars 8 & 9. Note how Stochelo draws out a phrase at times to prepare for the next change. The Ami tonic is a chord of rest, so it sort of speaks for itself in a way. The line is more active at bars 10 and 11. The line holds an ‘F’ natural over the Ami in bar 12. You can see more examples of this device, which holds a note over from a previous chord, or even anticipates the next change. He uses the bit at bars 10 & 11 again at bars 26. [BTW, it’s good to work out some of these riffs and take them apart, and learn to weave in and out of them. Everybody uses riffs or thematic material. You still need to know how to improvise, and believe me players like Stochelo certainly do, but it’s nice to have some things under your fingers to use and develop.  Moving on, an F7 is implied over the E7 in bar 22. A Bb is outlined over the E7 in bar 37. Bar 38 uses enclosure targeting the ‘E’ natural. He uses a cross-rhythm ‘false fingering’ bit in bars 45-48. It was used by sax players like Lester Young, and is common in Sinti style. [Chuck Berry uses a variation too]. Note, I may have missed a note or rhythm in that bit, it’s tricky. You can work something out based on the transcription and your ear. He uses a passing tone device in bar 63, and a cool Benson sounding blues lick in bar 44. The octave theme and chord bit in the 5th chorus are from Django’s ’49 solo.

There’s a lot to learn and appreciate here. You can see how Stochelo uses trills to make the line longer and target the 3rd of the next important chord, and you can also see how important it is to know all of your chord shapes and scale patterns.  He also develops his ideas very well, based usually on “question and answer,” concepts. This involves playing a simple theme, and then developing it and ending it in a pleasing way. Stephane Wrembel talks about this, and all good players do it, even unconsciously. Last note; I used the Amazing Slowdowner to transcribe this. The recording was a bit sharp of A’ 440. I had to lower the track about 19cents to match it. It’s also amazingly fast, I had the speed at times at 45 or 50%!

I hope that you enjoy learning the solo and working the ideas into your vocabulary.

Stochelo’s agent, Ivan told me that they will be playing in Canada at the end of May.

[MAY 30th, MONTREAL, Chamber Music Festival MAY 31st, TORONTO, Miracle Arena].

More details to follow.

Please feel free to email me with questions; Barwarren@aol.com,

And please check out my blog for more cool info, and interviews with players like Stochelo; www.GypsyJazzGuitarOnline.com . Oh, and check out my band, the infamous Hot Club of Philadelphia at www.HotClubPhilly.com

[1] See bars 45-46 in my transcription of Stochelo’s solo.  See also Django’s solo on Le Yeux Noir, 1947 recording, bars 87-88.  For further study check out Gypsy Fire, by my friends Andreas Öberg & Michael Horowitz, published by Djangobooks.

[2] For example Django uses some ii-V   ideas employing upper partials, playing Bmi9 sounds over the E7 towards the end of the progression.

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